DALS WILDLIFE SITE { WILDLIFE OF NORTHERN ENGLAND}

WILDLIFE OF NORTHERN ENGLAND

Elm Tree

Introduction.

Elms are the dominent tree in this image.

General information

Breeding Galleries of the beetle larva that cause Dutch Elm Disease.

The Notorious Dutch Elm disease.

Ulmus minor leaf with a Euro coin to give an ides of their size.

An avenue of English elms in Australia.

Description of Ulmus minor { U.campestris}.

Elm foliage

Leaf venation { Network of veins.}

The principle vein which continues from the very short stalk can not be describes a s a typical mid-vein,for it does not divide the leaf blade into two equal parts,the base of one side of the stalk is extended further down than the other.

The leaf margins are very prettily cut into small sharp pointed segments,or teeth. The more observant will see that there are two series of these teeth,one smaller and more acute series running between the larger series.

Very prominent veins branch on either side,and in alternation to each other,from the principle vein, and run to the points of the teeth or fork near their apices. One of the forks entering one of the marginal teeth and the other entering an adjoining one. A hand lens or magnifying glass is needed to see the ramifications over the leaf surface of the minute leaflets.

There are three principle stages of colouration of this species of elm. There is the light green of spring, the darker and more sombre green of summer and the yellow of autumn. This autumn yellow may be so bright as to give the tree a golden hue. Between the summer green and the golden hue there are many various and beautiful gradations.

The bright foliage of Elm.

Taken on the island of Oland Sweden

Image courtesy of Sten Porse taken on the Island of Oland ,Sweden CC BY-SA 3.0 license.

Floers and seed capsule {fruit}.

The flowers which appear before the leaves are in tufts upon the shoots of the preceding year,and are of a purplish red colour. folllowing the flowers are the fruits {seed capsules} termed by botanist as the Samara, is oblong deeply cleft on one side and smooth.

Seed capsules {fruit} of Ulmus minor.

Courtesy of Roger Culos CC By -SA 3.0 license

Description of Ulmus glabra {montana}

This species is often referred to as the Wych elm or an even older title of Mountain wych and is sometimes referred to with the Latin specific name of glabra.This species although it grows in the southern parts of the UK,it is in the north into England,and especially further north into Scotland that this tree grows most abundantly. Here it is common in the mountainous districts, for it is here, that it finds the soil congenial to its nature. This is generally rich,loose and frequently mixed with debris and rocks,yet retains a moist substrate. the long tough roots find the water and they are often associated with streams or rivers in the vicinity.

Instead of the upright pyramidal growth oft he previous species,wych elm forms a large spreading tree,generally loosing its central column at no great height from the ground, in the great diverging limbs which form its magnificent head. The branches from the weight of the foliage and rampant growth,are usually drooping or pendulous and hang in rich festoons

Ulmus glabra in winter.

Source Nijboer collection

Courtesy of Ronnie Nijober  CC BY -SA 1.0 license

Flowers and fruits of Ulmus glabra

Courtesy of MPF   CC BY-SA 3.0 license

The leaves

The leaves are much larger than the English Elm or any of its allied kinds. They are broadly elliptical with a longer pint and are more deeply serrated, the upper surface is roughened by with small ,hairy tubercles. The under surface is downy, with the ribs hairy at their origin and sub-divisions.

The bark of the young shoots are downy but the branches never become uneven. The flowers are on a longish stalk and more loosely tufted than those of the English elm. The Samara {fruit} is nearly orbicular with a notch reaching about half way down the seed.

unlike the former species the wych elm never produces suckers from the roots,though a bunch of parasitical shoots are not uncommon issuing from the bottom of the trunk. This lack of suckers in respect of propagation is amply compensated by the production of perfect seeds.

Foliage and fruits of Ulmus glabra

Courtesy of Banana patrol CC BY-SA 3.0 license.

Gilpin descriptive narative.

Gilpin made this descriptive narrative in respect of this species---" We consider the wych elm or Scottish elm,as one of the most beautiful trees in the British sylva. The trunk is so bold and picturesque in form,covered as it frequently is,with huge excresenses, the limbs and branches also are so free and graceful in their growth,and the foliage is so rich,without being heavy or clumpsy as a whole,and the head is generally so finely massed,and yet so well broken,as to render it one of the noblest park trees,and, when it grows wildly and the rockery scenery of its native Scotland, there is no tree which assumes so great or so pleasing a variety of character;our associations with it in such scenes lead us to prize it highly"

Bark of ulmus glabra

Courtesy of Ptela CC BY-SA 3.0 license

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